MYSQL入门学习之十八:MYSQLADMIN下令参数详解

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mysql入门学习之十八:MYSQLADMIN命令参数详解
        mysqladmin工具主要用来对数据库做一些简单的操作,以及显示服务器状态等。其使用格式如下:
        mysqladmin [option] command [command option] command ......
        在命令行中输入mysqladmin -?,打印出如下帮助信息

C:/Users/qxl>mysqladmin --help mysqladmin  Ver 8.42 Distrib 5.1.28-rc, for Win32 on ia32 Copyright (C) 2000-2006 MySQL AB This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software, and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL license  Administration program for the mysqld daemon. Usage: mysqladmin [OPTIONS] command command....   -c, --count=#       Number of iterations to make. This works with -i                       (--sleep) only.   --debug-check       Check memory and open file usage at exit .   --debug-info        Print some debug info at exit.   -f, --force         Don't ask for confirmation on drop database; with                       multiple commands, continue even if an error occurs.   -C, --compress      Use compression in server/client protocol.   --character-sets-dir=name                       Directory where character sets are.   --default-character-set=name                       Set the default character set.   -?, --help          Display this help and exit.   -h, --host=name     Connect to host.   -b, --no-beep       Turn off beep on error.   -p, --password[=name]                       Password to use when connecting to server. If password is                       not given it's asked from the tty.   -W, --pipe          Use named pipes to connect to server.   -P, --port=#        Port number to use for connection or 0 for default to, in                       order of preference, my.cnf, $MYSQL_TCP_PORT,                       /etc/services, built-in default (3306).   --protocol=name     The protocol of connection (tcp,socket,pipe,memory).   -r, --relative      Show difference between current and previous values when                       used with -i. Currently works only with extended-status.   -O, --set-variable=name                       Change the value of a variable. Please note that this                       option is deprecated; you can set variables directly with                       --variable-name=value.   --shared-memory-base-name=name                       Base name of shared memory.   -s, --silent        Silently exit if one can't connect to server.   -S, --socket=name   Socket file to use for connection.   -i, --sleep=#       Execute commands again and again with a sleep between.   --ssl               Enable SSL for connection (automatically enabled with                       other flags). Disable with --skip-ssl.   --ssl-ca=name       CA file in PEM format (check OpenSSL docs, implies                       --ssl).   --ssl-capath=name   CA directory (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).   --ssl-cert=name     X509 cert in PEM format (implies --ssl).   --ssl-cipher=name   SSL cipher to use (implies --ssl).   --ssl-key=name      X509 key in PEM format (implies --ssl).   --ssl-verify-server-cert                       Verify server's "Common Name" in its cert against                       hostname used when connecting. This option is disabled by                       default.   -u, --user=name     User for login if not current user.   -v, --verbose       Write more information.   -V, --version       Output version information and exit.   -E, --vertical      Print output vertically. Is similar to --relative, but                       prints output vertically.   -w, --wait[=#]      Wait and retry if connection is down.   --connect_timeout=#   --shutdown_timeout=#  Variables (--variable-name=value) and boolean options {FALSE|TRUE}  Value (after reading options) --------------------------------- ----------------------------- count                             0 debug-check                       FALSE debug-info                        FALSE force                             FALSE compress                          FALSE character-sets-dir                (No default value) default-character-set             (No default value) host                              (No default value) no-beep                           FALSE port                              0 relative                          FALSE shared-memory-base-name           (No default value) socket                            (No default value) sleep                             0 ssl                               FALSE ssl-ca                            (No default value) ssl-capath                        (No default value) ssl-cert                          (No default value) ssl-cipher                        (No default value) ssl-key                           (No default value) ssl-verify-server-cert            FALSE user                              (No default value) verbose                           FALSE vertical                          FALSE connect_timeout                   43200 shutdown_timeout                  3600  Default options are read from the following files in the given order: C:/Windows/my.ini C:/Windows/my.cnf C:/my.ini C:/my.cnf D:/APMServ5.2.6/MySQL5.1/my.ini D:/APMServ5.2.6/MySQL5.1/my.cnf  The following groups are read: mysqladmin client The following options may be given as the first argument: --print-defaults        Print the program argument list and exit --no-defaults           Don't read default options from any options file --defaults-file=#       Only read default options from the given file # --defaults-extra-file=# Read this file after the global files are read  Where command is a one or more of: (Commands may be shortened)   create databasename       Create a new database   debug                     Instruct server to write debug information to log   drop databasename         Delete a database and all its tables   extended-status           Gives an extended status message from the server   flush-hosts               Flush all cached hosts   flush-logs                Flush all logs   flush-status              Clear status variables   flush-tables              Flush all tables   flush-threads             Flush the thread cache   flush-privileges          Reload grant tables (same as reload)   kill id,id,...            Kill mysql threads   password new-password     Change old password to new-password, MySQL 4.1 hashing.   old-password new-password Change old password to new-password in old format.   ping                      Check if mysqld is alive   processlist               Show list of active threads in server   reload                    Reload grant tables   refresh                   Flush all tables and close and open logfiles   shutdown                  Take server down   status                    Gives a short status message from the server   start-slave               Start slave   stop-slave                Stop slave   variables                 Prints variables available   version                   Get version info from server

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        帮助信息主要包括三部分:

        第一部分为mysqladmin命令的相关选项,详细说明如下:

-c, --count=# Number of iterations to make. This works with -i (--sleep) only. 自动运行次数,必须和 -i 一起使用
--debug-check Check memory and open file usage at exit .
--debug-info Print some debug info at exit.
-f, --force Don't ask for confirmation on drop database; with multiple commands, continue even if an error occurs. 禁用错误,drop 数据库时不提示,执行多条命令时出错继续执行
-C, --compress Use compression in server/client protocol. 在服务器和客户端之间使用压缩
--character-sets-dir=name Directory where character sets are. 设置字符集目录
--default-character-set=name Set the default character set. 设置字符集默认目录
-?, --help Display this help and exit. 显示帮助信息
-h, --host=name Connect to host. 主机名
-b, --no-beep Turn off beep on error. 报错时,不响铃(嘟的一声)
-p, --password[=name] Password to use when connecting to server. If password is not given it's asked from the tty. 服务器连接密码
-W, --pipe Use named pipes to connect to server. 使用命名管道连接服务器
-P, --port=# Port number to use for connection or 0 for default to, in order of preference, my.cnf, $MYSQL_tcp_PORT, /etc/services, built-in default (3306). 端口号
--protocol=name The protocol of connection (tcp,socket,pipe,memory). 设置连接使用的协议
-r, --relative Show difference between current and previous values when used with -i. Currently works only with extended-status. 显示前后变化的值,必须结合- i
-O, --set-variable=name Change the value of a variable. Please note that this option is deprecated; you can set variables directly with --variable-name=value. 修改变量的值,使用--variable-name=value 的方式修改变量值
--shared-memory-base-name=name Base name of shared memory.
-s, --silent Silently exit if one can't connect to server. 如果连接服务器失败则退出
-S, --socket=name Socket file to use for connection. 指定socket file
-i, --sleep=# Execute commands again and again with a sleep between. 间隔一段时间执行一次
--ssl Enable SSL for connection (automatically enabled with other flags). Disable with --skip-ssl.
--ssl-ca=name CA file in PEM format (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).
--ssl-capath=name CA directory (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).
--ssl-cert=name X509 cert in PEM format (implies --ssl).
--ssl-cipher=name SSL cipher to use (implies --ssl).
--ssl-key=name X509 key in PEM format (implies --ssl).
--ssl-verify-server- cert Verify server's "Common Name" in its cert against hostname used when connecting. This option is disabled by default.
-u, --user=name User for login if not current user. 用户名
-v, --verbose Write more information.
-V, --version Output version information and exit. 显示MYSQLADMIN的版本
-E, --vertical Print output vertically. Is similar to --relative, but prints output vertically. 垂直显示输出
-w, --wait[=#] Wait and retry if connection is down. 如果连接断开,则等待并重试
--connect_timeout=# 连接超时
--shutdown_timeout=# 超时关闭

        示例:

C:/Users/qxl>mysqladmin -uroot -E -i 3 -c 2 status Uptime: 1590  Threads: 1  Questions: 5  Slow queries: 0  Opens: 15  Flush tables: 1  Open tables: 8  Queries per second avg: 0.3 Uptime: 1593  Threads: 1  Questions: 5  Slow queries: 0  Opens: 15  Flush tables: 1  Open tables: 8  Queries per second avg: 0.3  C:/Users/qxl>mysqladmin -V mysqladmin  Ver 8.42 Distrib 5.1.28-rc, for Win32 on ia32

       第二部分为mysqladmin的相关变量。

        第三部分为mysqladmin可以执行的相关服务器命令,详细说明如下:

create databasename Create a new database 创建一个新数据库
debug Instruct server to write debug information to log 通知服务器将调试信息写入日志
drop databasename Delete a database and all its tables 删除一个数据库及其所有表
extended-status Gives an extended status message from the server 给出服务器的一个扩展状态消息
flush-hosts Flush all cached hosts 清除所有缓存的主机
flush-logs Flush all logs 清除所有日志
flush-status Clear status variables
flush-tables Flush all tables 清除所有表
flush-threads Flush the thread cache 清除线程缓存
flush-privileges Reload grant tables (same as reload) 再次装载授权表(同reload)
kill id,id,... Kill mysql threads 杀死mysql线程
password new-password Change old password to new-password, MySQL 4.1 hashing. 将老口令改为新口令
old-password new-password Change old password to new-password in old format. 修改口令
ping Check if mysqld is alive 检查mysqld是否在线
processlist Show list of active threads in server 显示服务其中活跃线程列表
reload Reload grant tables 重载授权表
refresh Flush all tables and close and open logfiles 洗掉所有表并关闭和打开日志文件
shutdown Take server down 关掉服务器
status Gives a short status message from the server 给出服务器的简短状态消息
start-slave Start slave 启动slave
stop-slave Stop slave 关闭slave
variables Prints variables available 打印出可用变量
version Get version info from server 得到服务器的版本信息

        示例:

C:/Users/qxl>mysqladmin -uroot version mysqladmin  Ver 8.42 Distrib 5.1.28-rc, for Win32 on ia32 Copyright (C) 2000-2006 MySQL AB This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software, and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL license  Server version          5.1.28-rc-community Protocol version        10 Connection              localhost via TCP/IP TCP port                3306 Uptime:                 31 min 3 sec  Threads: 1  Questions: 23  Slow queries: 0  Opens: 16  Flush tables: 2  Open tables: 0  Queries per second avg: 0.12  C:/Users/qxl>mysqladmin -u root -p create test_admin Enter password:  C:/Users/qxl>mysqladmin -u root -p drop test_admin Enter password: Dropping the database is potentially a very bad thing to do. Any data stored in the database will be destroyed.  Do you really want to drop the 'test_admin' database [y/N] y Database "test_admin" dropped  C:/Users/qxl>mysqladmin -u root flush-status  C:/Users/qxl>mysqladmin -u root processlist +----+------+----------------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+ | Id | User | Host           | db | Command | Time | State | Info             | +----+------+----------------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+ | 21 | root | localhost:8925 |    | Query   | 0    |       | show processlist | +----+------+----------------+----+---------+------+-------+------------------+  C:/Users/qxl>mysqladmin -u root status Uptime: 1947  Threads: 1  Questions: 32  Slow queries: 0  Opens: 18  Flush tables: 2  Open tables: 2  Queries per second  avg: 0.16

        其中mysqladmin -u root status输出信息中各项的详细说明如下:

        Uptime:MySQL服务器已经运行的秒数
        Threads:活跃线程(客户)的数量
        Questions:从mysqld启动起来自客户查询的数量
        Slow queries:已经超过long_query_time秒的查询数量
        Opens:mysqld已经打开了多少表
        Flush tables:flush ..., refresh和reload命令数量
        Open tables:现在被打开的表数量
        Queries per second avg:查询平均用时

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